Lincolns first train ride

Lincoln's Train

Lincoln’s Inaugural Train Journey

The railroad journey of the President–elect on New York Central trains from Springfield, Illinois to Washington D.C. in the winter of 1861 was considered a trip full of potential dangers.

Several Southern States had already withdrawn from the Union, and assassination attempts were a possibility. For these reasons, the train schedule was tightly controlled and the stops made for as short time as possible.

Abraham Lincoln stopped and made a brief statement at the Peekskill train depot at 2 p.m. on Tuesday, February 19, 1861. This dramatic event is fairly well documented.
Towards noon, quite a number came to the village from the country surrounding, and wended their way to the Depot.” Highland Democrat, Peekskill, Feb. 23rd, 1861. Section: Domestic Record, Headline: “Mr. Lincoln at Peekskill.”

Abraham Lincoln was elected President of the United States in November of 1860. He made a grand one week railway tour from his hometown in Springfield, Illinois to his inauguration in Washington D.C., which then took place in March. The trip was scheduled according to a precise timetable agreed upon along the route. The stops would be brief, and these stops would coincide with service requirements of fuel and water for the steam locomotive.

Indianapolis, IN When Lincoln left Springfield to start his inaugural journey on February 11, 1861, he paid an unforgettable tribute to his friends and neighbors known today as the Farewell Address. Lincoln spoke these famous words as he boarded a special Presidential train at the Great Western Railroad station, now a restored Lincoln visitor site. Robert Todd Lincoln would be the only family member to depart with the president-elect.  He stopped, and spoke at several big cities along the way. The inaugural train left Springfield on February 11th. It then stopped at Indianapolis, Ohio the same day. Lincoln arrived at Cincinnati on the 12th, and Columbus, Ohio the 13th.

Columbus, OH February 12-–his birthday–Lincoln has several other events in Indianapolis before resuming the journey. Mary and their two little boys, Willy and Tad, who had not been with them on the first leg to Indianapolis, join him here. Just outside of Indianapolis is Connor Prairie a living history museum that captures the life of 19th century settlers. We’ll stop here for a visit before continuing to Cincinnati where we’ll visit the famous Lincoln Statue, the William Howard Taft National Historic Site, the Harriet Beecher Stowe Memorial, the U.S. Grant birthplace and home, and William Henry Harrison’s tomb. Our last stop today, before Columbus is Zenia, OH the birthplace of the great Indian leader, Tecumseh.

Pittsburgh, PA While in Columbus Lincoln spoke at the State House where we will also visit . Our next stop is the home of James Thurber, American humorist and cartoonist most famous for his contributions to the New Yorker magazine. Just outside of Columbus are historic Indian Mounds and the Cy Young Memorial where we will briefly stop before continuing on to Pittsburgh where we will visit the site of the Monongahela House where Lincoln stayed and delivered a half-hour speech from the Smithfield Street balcony of his second floor room, prematurely reassuring the crowd that concerns for a looming civil war were unfounded: “There is no crisis but an artificial one.”  The train arrived at Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania on February 14th.

Lincoln proceeded to Buffalo

On February 18 several hundred well-wishers and military escort see Lincoln off on the train from Buffalo to Albany at 5:45 in the morning. The train stops in the New York towns of Batavia, Rochester, Clyde, Syracuse, Utica, Little Falls, Fonda, Amsterdam, and Schenectady on its way to Albany. In Albany, not a favorite stop for the Lincolns, the president elect consults with Thurlow Weed, speaks to a joint session of the legislature, dines in the Governor’s mansion, and stays the night at the Delavan House

“Lincoln kept up his activities for most of the evening before retiring to his room for a much needed sleep. Buffalo had “Lincoln Fever” and the fact that the great man was in the city kept the atmosphere lively throughout the night. The following morning, Lincoln and his party left the American Hotel in waiting carriages and drove without incident back to the Exchange Street Station. After arriving at the depot, Mr. Lincoln passed unattended through the files of the escort to the train, which left immediately. As the train pulled away, those in attendance saw Lincoln standing on the rear platform, bowing to the cheers of the crowd.”

Thus ending the visit of Abraham Lincoln to the City of Buffalo. He would return four years later, however, in a completely different set of circumstances and the mood of the city would be nothing like it was in February of 1861. Four years is a long time for a country on the brink of a Civil War.

Lincoln then proceeded to New York on the 16th. The New York State cities of Rochester, Syracuse, and Utica were visited on the 18th. Mr. Lincoln arrived at the Albany State Capitol on the 19th. That same day there were stops along the Hudson River line at Poughkeepsie, Fishkill and Peekskill. The train traveled to New York City the same day.

Washington, DC In Philadelphia Lincoln for first time the evening of February 21 learns of a plot on his life when his train is scheduled to pass through Baltimore. What follows is a cloak and dagger train of events. The famous detective, Allan Pinkerton, has uncovered the plot down the line and is cooperating with Lincoln’s top aides in a plan to smuggle the president-elect through Baltimore alone and safely into Washington, separate from the train and the rest of his party. Lincoln is advised of the plan in Philadelphia and agrees to go along with it, but only after he has fulfilled his commitment to participate in the planned ceremony in historic Independence Hall in Philadelphia the next day (the 22nd) and move on schedule to Harrisburg, the state capital to speak to the legislature and fulfill his commitments there later that same day. That done, he is indeed smuggled back into Philadelphia, accompanied by a body guard and Pinkerton, on through Baltimore, and safely delivered disguised in Washington in the early morning February 23.

Breif Outline of some of the stops. The Last Train Ride also traveled the same basic track.

Illinois (Champaign County), Tolono — Lincoln 1861 Inaugural Train Stop
Abraham Lincoln made his farewell address to the people of Illinois at the Tolono Station February 11, 1861. “I am leaving you on an errand of national importance, attended as you are aware with considerable difficulties. Let us believe as some poet has expressed it ‘behind the cloud the sun is still shining.’ I bid you an affectionate farewell.”
Illinois (Sangamon County), Springfield — Lincoln’s Farewell to Springfield
February 11, 1861 My friends, no one not in my situation can appreciate my feelings of sadness at this parting, to this place, and the kindness of this people, I owe everything. Here I have lived a quarter of a century, and have passed from a young to an old man. Here my children have been born, and one is buried. Now I leave, not knowing when or whether ever I may return; with a task before me greater than that which rested upon Washington. Without the assistance of that divine being who ever .
Illinois (Sangamon County), Springfield — The Lincoln Depot
From this building on February 11, 1861 Abraham Lincoln departed Springfield, Illinois to assume the Presidency of the United States. After bidding farewell to a number of friends, he delivered a brief, spontaneous and moving farewell address to the crowd, estimated at 1,000, from the rear platform of the train.
Illinois (Vermilion County), Danville — Abraham Lincoln
At noon on February 11, 1861, President Abraham Lincoln’s inaugural train stopped at the Great Western Depot located here. It was the day before his 52nd birthday. He had been coming to Vermilion County for twenty years to attend Circuit Court in Danville. He spoke briefly to his friends and supporters, an audience estimated at about one thousand. The final words of his speech were: “If I find I have blessings at my disposal, Old Vermilion will come in for a bountiful .
Indiana (Boone County), Lebanon — Abraham Lincoln
Enroute to Washington, D.C., to become 16th President of the U.S., addressed citizens of Lebanon and Boone County from rear of railroad passenger car at this place on the evening of February 11, 1861.
Indiana (Boone County), Zionsville — Lincoln’s Stop in Zionsville, Indiana
Abraham Lincoln enroute to Washington as President Elect on February 11 1861 addressed the Citizens of Zionsville at the Railroad Depot which stood on this site.
Indiana (Marion County), Indianapolis — Here, Abraham Lincoln Said
Here, Feb 11, 1861, Abraham Lincoln, on his way to Washington to assume the Presidency, in an address said “I appeal to you to constantly bear in mind that not with politicians, not with presidents, not with office-seekers, but with you is the question: Shall the Union and shall the liberties of this country be preserved to the latest generations?”
Indiana (Marion County), Indianapolis — Lincoln to the Citizens of Indiana
“. . . it is your business . . . if the Union of these States, and the liberties of this people, shall be lost. . . . It is your business to rise up and preserve the Union. . . .” From speech by President-elect Abraham Lincoln at intersection of Washington and Missouri Streets, Indianapolis, February 11, 1861
Indiana (Warren County), State Line City — Abraham Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln made his only speech in Warren County, Indiana near this spot Feb. 11, 1861.“Gentlemen of Indiana: I am happy to meet you on this occasion, and enter again the state of my early life, and almost of maturity. I am under many obligations to you for your kind reception, and to Indiana for the aid she rendered our cause which, I think, a just one. Gentlemen, I shall address you at greater length at Indianapolis, but not much greater. Again gentlemen, I thank you for your warm hearted reception.”
New Jersey (Mercer County), Trenton — State House
The State House is the heart of New Jersey’s State government, the second oldest State House in continuous use in the United States. First built in 1792 and expanded in every generation, the State House is a witness to two centuries of American history and a mosaic of architectural styles. President-elect Abraham Lincoln, on his way to take office, addressed the Legislature here. Governor Woodrow Wilson began here the political career that would take him to the White House.
New York (Albany County), Albany — Lincoln in Albany
“I hold myself without mock modesty, the humblest of all individuals that have ever been elevated to the Presidency….You have generously tendered me the united support of the great Empire State.” – Abraham Lincoln speaking to the New York Legislature on February 18, 1861. President-elect Abraham Lincoln was greeted by a large, boisterous crowd on February 18, 1861, as he stopped in Albany on his way to his inauguration in Washington, D.C. In his speech at the old State House.
Ohio (Franklin County), Columbus — The Ohio Statehouse / Lincoln at the Statehouse
In 1812, the Ohio legislature designated Columbus as the state capital, with local landowners contributing land and resources for a capitol building and penitentiary. The first Columbus statehouse, a Federal-style structure completed in 1816, stood on the northeast corner of State and High streets. By the 1830s, the need for a more substantial structure was apparent. Cincinnati architect Thomas Walter won the 1838 capitol design contest, though the final design incorporated several .
Pennsylvania (Dauphin County), Harrisburg — Abraham Lincoln
On February 22, 1861, while journeying to Washington for his Inauguration, Lincoln stopped at the Jones House, on this site. From the portico of the hotel, he addressed a large crowd gathered in Market Square.
Pennsylvania (Dauphin County), Harrisburg — The Jones House
On this site, the southeast corner of Second and Market Streets on Market Square, stood the Jones House, a mid-Nineteenth Century Hotel, which later evolved into the larger Commonwealth Hotel and later, the Dauphin Building. It was here that Abraham Lincoln stopped on February 22, 1861, en-route to his inauguration in Washington DC. The President-Elect greeted and spoke to city residents in the Square and went by carriage to the State Capitol Building to address the Pennsylvania Legislature as
Pennsylvania (Philadelphia County), Philadelphia — Abraham Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln stood here when he raised the flag on Independence Hall February 22nd 1861. This tablet placed by Post 2 Department of Pennsylvania Grand Army of the Republic.

Chattanooga cho cho/Trains/Award Program

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In 1838, the Western and Atlantic (W & A) line named Chattanooga its northern terminal for trains departing from Atlanta. On December 1, 1849 W & A operated the first train to Chattanooga. Passengers and goods on board the train stopped at Tunnel Hill, were carried over the ridge in wagons, and resumed there train ride on the other side. This first train stopped at a temporary station. In 1850 W & A completed a tunnel through Tunnel Hill. On December 11, 1845 the Tennessee General Assembly chartered the Nashville & Chattanooga Railway (N & C). In 1852 the several railway companies operating in Chattanooga began building the Union Station located at the corner of 9th and Market. The station derived its name because more than one railroad united in its construction.  

Chattanooga’s Union Station ca. 1885
Courtesy Chattanooga Public Library
In 1853, since the Cumberland Mountains obstructed a direct rout to Chattanooga, passengers rode the N & C from Nashville to Bridgeport Alabama, concluding their trip to Chattanooga by riverboat. By 1857 Chattanooga had become a hub of rail travel in the South. The main structure of the Union depot was built in 1858. Pre-Civil War mainline railroad construction provided Chattanooga with rail service, while also contributing to its strategic military significance from 1861  1865.

On several occasions during the war, the shed at Union station served as a makeshift hospital for wounded soldiers from both sides.Economic opportunities in post-war Chattanooga, led John Stanton of Boston to invest $100,000 in 1871 on the construction of the Stanton House, a 100 room L-shaped hotel, in the 1400 block of Market Street. On September 4, 1875 the first trolley in Chattanooga began operation.

The Chattanooga Choo-Choo

In March of 1880, the first train of Cincinnati Southern Railway (CSR) rolled into town, creating the first major link between the North and South. A newspaper columnist nicknamed the train the Chattanooga Choo-Choo, a name that would later go down in history. The Choo-Choo crossed the Tennessee River seven miles north of Chattanooga, and two miles further, at Boyce, connected with five miles of the W & A line to Union Station. Eventually CSR constructed its own line parallel to that of W & A from Boyce to Chattanooga. The Chattanooga Choo-Choo would not become famous for another sixty-one years. In 1881 A brick depot was constructed at Union Station.


When Glenn Miller and his orchestra introduced the famous song “Chattanooga Choo- Choo” in 1941, the Tennessee city it referred to had been a railroad center for nearly a century. Mack Gordons lyrics from the Academy Award- nominated song trace the progress of the “Choo-Choo” from New Yorks Pennsylvania Station through Baltimore, the Carolinas, and into Track 29 of Chattanoogas sprawling Terminal Station. Arriving passengers were greeted by the bustle, sounds, smells, and opulence of a grand building that was a tribute to the towns importance as a southeastern transportation hub. Around Terminal Station were miles of crisscrossing tracks, acres of rail yards, and dozens of buildings that housed the industries, restaurants, hotels, shops, offices, and people of a town that evolved as a direct result of the rail industry.

Railroads both influenced and reflected American settlement and development from the 1830s to the 1950s. In the cities, they shaped and stimulated economic growth, planning, and architecture. Today, although railroads have lost much of their economic importance, evidence of their influence remains. Even in towns where trains no longer run, buildings, tracks, train beds, and place names attest to the enduring legacy of Americas rail history.

“Chattanooga Choo Choo” is a big-band/swing song which was featured in the 1941 movie Sun Valley Serenade, which starred amongst others Sonja Henie, Glenn Miller and his Orchestra, The Modernaires, Milton Berle and Joan Davis. It was performed in the film as an extended production number, featuring vocals by Tex Beneke, Paula Kelly, and the Modernaires followed by a production number showcasing Dorothy Dandridge and an acrobatic dance sequence by The Nicholas Brothers. This was the #1 song across the United States on December 7 1941.

Today, one of the original trains has pride of place in Chattanooga’s former Terminal Station. Once owned and operated by the Southern Railway the station was saved from demolition after the withdrawal of passenger rail service in the early 1970s, and it is now part of a 30-acre (12-hectare) resort complex, including the Choo-Choo Holiday Inn and numerous historical railway exhibits. Hotel guests can stay in half of a restored passenger railway car. Dining at the complex includes the Gardens restaurant in the Terminal Station itself, The Station House (which is housed in a former baggage storage) and the “Dinner in the Diner” which is the complex’s fine dining venue, housed in a restored 1940s dining car. The city’s other historic station, Union Station, parts of which predated the Civil War, was demolished in 1973; its site is now a large office building. In addition to the railroad exhibits at “the Choo Choo”, there are further exhibits at Tennessee Valley Railroad Museum, which is in the suburb of East Chattanooga.

The reputation given to the city by the song also lent itself to making Chattanooga the home of the National Model Railroad Association. In addition, the athletic mascot of the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga is a rather menacing-looking anthropomorphized mockingbird named Scrappy, who is dressed as a railroad engineman and is sometimes depicted at the throttle of a steam locomotive.

The Dixie Flyer originally was a named train that did pass through and stop in Chattanooga on its run from Chicago to Miami. That railroad, until 1957 was the Nashville, Chattanooga and St. Louis Railroad (NC&StL). The NC&StL was merged into L&N in 1957. Now it is part of CSX.

The Southern Crescent did not go through Chattanooga, but there were at least three other Southern Railway trains that ran through Chattanooga direct to Washington and on to New York without changing trains. There was a change of locomotives between Bristol, Tennessee, and Lynchburg, Virginia; Norfolk and Western Railway operated the train on tht portion, turning it back over to the Southern at Lynchburg. The named trains on this route were the Pelican, Birmingham Special and Tennessean.

In 1968, the American musical group Harpers Bizarre released a cover version of the song “Chattanooga Choo Choo”, which reached #45 on the U.S. pop chart while spending two weeks at #1 on the Easy Listening chart (which would later be renamed the Adult Contemporary chart).

In the 1970s the tune was used in the UK on an advert for Toffee Crisp candy bars, starting with “Pardon me, boy, is that a Toffee Crisp you chew chew,” and ending with the final punch line “Chew chew Toffee crisp, the big value bar.”    [Top of page]

Glenn Miller
– from “Sun Valley Serenade”
– words by Mack Gordon, music by Harry Warren

Pardon me, boy
Is that the Chattanooga choo choo?
Track twenty-nine
Boy, you can gimme a shine
I can afford
To board a Chattanooga choo choo
I’ve got my fare
And just a trifle to spare

You leave the Pennsylvania Station ’bout a quarter to four
Read a magazine and then you’re in Baltimore
Dinner in the diner
Nothing could be finer
Than to have your ham an’ eggs in Carolina

When you hear the whistle blowin’ eight to the bar
Then you know that Tennessee is not very far
Shovel all the coal in
Gotta keep it rollin’
Woo, woo, Chattanooga there you are

There’s gonna be
A certain party at the station
Satin and lace
I used to call “funny face”
She’s gonna cry
Until I tell her that I’ll never roam
So Chattanooga choo choo
Won’t you choo-choo me home?
Chattanooga choo choo

McCulloups Leap

History Porthall entrance

 History of Wheeling [Settlement] History of Wheeling late 1700’s Worlds largest producer of nails  Wheeling and the Railroad    Triadelphia Wv History History of National Road/ Wheeling today/ The National Road Route 40  passes through Triadelphia and Elm Grove, The Stone house at Roney’s Point, Monument Place, The Stone Bridge and through Wheeling. Crossing the Ohio River in Wheeling over the Suspension Bridge.Stone House    The Monument Place    National Road  Old Pictures of Wheeling   Some important places in Wheeling’s Past that influenced my life 

 History of West Virginia

The building you see in the backround is where Gerrero Music Is located. There is a parking lot to the left of the building. The former Imperial Display was located here and destoyed by fire. As was the original Gerrero Music Store. They both were facing Main  Street. To see a arial view of Wheeling and the distance from the fort to the Leep of Samuel McCullough [Click here]

Fort Henry

  Wheeling, Fort Henry,McCullough’s leap

The Leap

Picture on left is from the 30’s picture below is in the 1880’s


Wheeling, a village of thirty houses, was, with the exception of Pittsburg, the most important place on the Ohio River. Fort Henry was its citadel. The fort stood on a lofty bluff. It was an oblong square, of oak palisades, inclosing two or three acres of ground. At the corners of the stockade were block-houses. Inside were the magazine and a few solid cabins, quarters for the neighboring settlers who might take refuge there. In the few years since their coming, the founders of Wheeling had made the wilderness to blossom as the rose. Standing on the ramparts of Fort Henry, looking out over the landscape, one might have seen not only the encircling forests, the distant purple of the mountains, and the winding river, but also green pastures, populated with contented cattle, waving fields of yellow grain, leafy orchards, from which peeped the blushing fruit, and solid barns to store the products of the farms.

On the 31st of August, 1777, scouts brought definite information of the approach of five hundred Indians, all armed with the best weapons, and abundantly supplied by the British Government with ammunition. They were commanded by a white man. On receipt of this intelligence, every one repaired to the fort. The cattle were driven into the stockade. Provisions and ammunition were hurriedly carried up the bluff, and lodged in the store-house and magazine. Camp fires were built inside the stockade.

As night came on, the women and children spread improvised beds on the floors of the cabins. But, although they retired, they were wide-awake. The women talked to each other in excited whispers. The crackling of a twig caused shudders of apprehension. Forty times during the night, it was said: “There they are!” The men remained outside to watch. They sat around the camp-fire, gun in hand, saying little, constantly on the alert, and grimly awaiting the attack. There were just sixty men in the fort. But the night passed without any indication of the presence of the foe. The truth was the Indians had come within sight of the fort. They had seen the sparks from the camp-fires, and the light in the block-houses. This showed that the garrison was awake. The night attack was abandoned.

For this disappointment the Indians resolved to compensate themselves. An ambuscade would be about as gratifying as the night attack. They ranged themselves in a double line across the fields. When the sun rose they lay hidden in the weeds. The people at the fort did not suspect the trap. A white man and a negro went out to drive in some horses which had been over looked the night before. They walked into the snare. Six Indians sprang up. The white man was killed. But the negro was purposely allowed to escape, that he might carry word to the fort and induce more men to come out. The scheme succeeded. He reported that there were six Indians down there. Fourteen men under Captain Mason, at once set out to punish the murderers. Sure enough they found six Indians retreating across the field. The pursuers fired. As if by magic the field was instantly blackened with Indians starting up from their concealment. Retreat was cut off. The white men fell on the encircling lines with the fury of despair. They hacked, clubbed, cut, gashed, and beat their way through. We said “they.” Who? The fifteen? No, the four! Eleven never got through. Mason and three men started to run for the fort. William Shepherd’s foot caught in a grape vine. He fell. Before he could rise, a tomahawk clove asunder his skull. Another was shot as he ran. Mason snatched his gun. He, himself, was wounded twice, but he pressed on in the race for life. He felt the warm breath of his pursuer. He stopped short, tripped up the savage, and shot him. He could proceed no farther. He crawled into a hollow log, and lay there till the pursuers ceased to be such.

The discharge of guns and the yells of the Indians had been the only information at the fort of the ambuscade. As has been said, it was a little after sunrise. A dense fog from the river made it impossible to see an object ten feet off. The defenders of the fort saw nothing. Captain Ogle took twelve men and went to the rescue. He was a little in the rear of his party. Suddenly a ring of Indians was discovered to have completely surrounded the party in the fog. Ogle alone was left outside that circle. The scene that followed was the worst sort of butchery. In two minutes all but two of Ogle’s men were killed. Ogle hid himself in a fence corner. An Indian came, and sat just above him on the fence. He was wounded and in pain. He did not notice the white man. When the wounded Indian left, Ogle made his way to the fort. They were making a list of the dead. Twenty-seven of the best men had left the fort. Only four had returned alive, and they were wounded.

There was no time to grieve. The whole force of Indians was starting up the hill, flourishing the bloody scalps of the slain, for an assault on the fort. These scalps were valuable. Colonel Hamilton, the British commandant at Detroit, who had fitted out this terrible war-party, paid thirty dollars for every settler’s scalp. Twenty-three scalps were worth six hundred and ninety dollars. Hamilton is known to history as the “hair buyer.” There were thirty-three men and about a hundred women and children left in the fort. Every heart was heavy with grief from the terrible disasters of the morning. The Indians called for a surrender. But the weakened garrison replied that death alone could conquer them.

The Indians began the attack. At first, they fought at long range, firing into the walls of the palisade, and doing no execution. The defenders of the fort reserved their fire. At last, the Indians started in a dead run for the gates of the palisade, to tear them down and force an entrance. They were met by a deadly fire at point-blank range. The charging column wavered. To hesitate in a charge is to retreat. The Indians retreated.

It was an hour before this maneuver was repeated. This time the danger to the fort was great. Its defenders were splendid marksmen. Many a noble form was stretched lifeless in the grass as the Indians swarmed up the slope. But the numbers of the foe were so great that it seemed almost impossible to beat them back. Instead of retreating at the first fire, the survivors continued to advance.

The women of the fort were busy. Some moulded bullets. Others loaded guns, and handed them to the men, who could, as a consequence, fire three times where they could only have done so once. The garrison seemed to multiply itself. Some of the women stood at port-holes, loading and firing with all the skill and precision of the men. The battle is said to have lasted twenty-three hours. During the lulls in the conflict, the women would carry bread and meat to the smoke-blackened men at the port-holes. It seemed as if the strength of the Indians would never be weakened. It seemed as if their persistence would never be wearied out. During all that time, not an eye was closed in slumber, not a hand removed from a rifle.

There were many incidents of personal heroism during the siege. As there was another siege of Fort Henry in 1782, there has been great dispute as to which siege the respective incidents belong. The best authorities differ. But for our purpose, this doubt is unimportant. The place, persons, and circumstances were the same at both sieges. The defenses were equally heroic. This is not a critical history. It is a popular recountal. We will take advantage of the doubt as to time. We will range ourselves with those authorities which hold that Elizabeth Zane’s gunpowder exploit and Sam. McCullough’s leap for life occurred in the siege of 1777. It would be interesting to relate this historical dispute. Both sides rest their argument on the sworn testimony of eye-witnesses. Either account, taken by itself and judged by the canons of historical criticism, would appear unimpeachable. Yet they are absolutely contradictory. They differ not only as to time, but as to the actors themselves., and as to the transaction itself.

One woman, who was an eye-witness, swears that she saw the gunpowder exploit performed by Mollie Clark, in 1782, that she herself handed out the gunpowder, that the supply had run short, not at the fort, but at Colonel Zane’s cabin outside the stockade, and that Elizabeth Zane was not present at the siege at all. On the other hand, the first published accounts of the affair were prepared by scrupulously careful writers who obtained their whole information from the people of Wheeling, who were participants in the siege. They say the exploit was performed at the first siege, and relate it as we give it herein. This dispute shows how apt eye-witnesses are, after a shorter or longer lapse of time, to exaggerate, to pervert it, to wholly change the facts, no matter how honest their intentions. It illustrates the slenderness of so much of what is called historical evidence. It warns us to be cautious as to how we receive accounts of marvelous and unusual occurrences, and explains in a very practical way the growth of legends and historical myths.

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During the afternoon of the first day, the supply of gunpowder was perceived to be dangerously small. Colonel Zane, the founder of Wheeling, remembered that in his cabin, sixty yards from the fort, was a full keg of powder. He called the men about him, told them the facts, and asked for volunteers to procure the keg of powder. Several brave fellows offered, but at this point, Elizabeth Zane, a handsome and vivacious girl, stepped forward.

She was a younger sister of the colonel, and had just come from Philadelphia, where she had been educated in the best school for young ladies in the city. Though wholly unfamiliar with border warfare, she had thrown herself into the work of casting bullets, making cartridges, and loading rifles, with the greatest zeal and courage. Now she bounded forward and imperiously announced, “No one shall go but myself!” The men turned quickly as her clear voice rang out in the air. Her flashing eyes and mounting color added emphasis to the bold declaration. At first, her offer was peremptorily refused, but the high-spirited girl was not to be denied. She argued that the enfeebled garrison could better spare her than any of the men.

In a moment she opened the heavy gate, and flew towards the cabin. The Indians saw her and watched her movements. When she came out of the building, and, with the keg of powder in her arms, sped with the fleetness of a fawn toward the fort, they sent a heavy volley of bullets after her, but not a ball touched the person of the daring girl. The gates were opened. She entered safely with her prize. A loud cheer welcomed her, and every man, inspired by her heroism, and thrilled with her loveliness, resolved to repulse the foe or die in the effort. The young heroine lived to a ripe age, becoming the founder of Zanesville, Ohio, it is said. “The story of Elizabeth Zane,” says Lossing, “ought to be perpetuated in marble and preserved in the Valhalla of our Revolutionary heroes.”

During the night the savages kept up their assaults with unwearied vigor. About midnight they began to fire the houses of Wheeling, one after another. Meanwhile, relief was coming from two directions. How news flies so rapidly in a wilderness where there are neither telegraphs, railroads, mails, stagecoaches, couriers, nor travelers, is a mystery impossible to explain. However it may be, Major Sam. McCullough, at the head of forty mounted men, was on his way from the Short Creek settlement, and Colonel Swearinger, with fourteen men, was coming down the river in a boat from Halliday’s fort. About four o’clock in the morning McCullough’s men dashed through the burning village and up to the fort. McCullough himself reined in, refusing to go in till all of his men had entered. The Indians made a rush to intercept the relief party, but were too late for any one except McCullough. He was left outside as the gates closed. They could have killed him, but desired to take him alive and save him for torture, to avenge themselves for the many injuries he had inflicted on them. McCullough, the hero of many a close encounter, put spurs to his horse and dashed along the hillside, toward Van Meter’s block-house, several miles away. He had reached the top of Wheeling Hill, fairly distancing his pursuers, when a body of Indians appeared just ahead of him, moving rapidly to surround him.

A glance taught him the peril of the situation. On one side was a steep precipice; on the others were his foes. He hesitated not an instant, but curved his horse abruptly toward the precipice, and, with a leap disappeared from the view of his astounded pursuers. The hill was very high and exceedingly abrupt in its declivity. The Indians ran to the brink, expecting to see his mangled corpse on the rocks below. Instead of this, they saw him firmly seated in his saddle, galloping rapidly around a point of rocks safe from their pursuit.

Swearinger’s party, coming down the dark and foggy river, now running ashore, now far out in mid-stream, out of sight of land, half rowing, half drifting, were apprehensive lest they should pass Wheeling in the pitchy darkness. Their fears were groundless. Long before they reached the place, a red and angry glare lit up the canopy of clouds which overhung the unfortunate settlement.

It was dawn before they reached their destination. Half-stifled by the smoke from the ruined cabins, they crawled up to the fort and entered. Not an Indian was visible. A furious attack had been repulsed and was followed by an unusual stillness. Two bold scouts went out to reconnoiter. They returned without discovering the whereabouts of the foe. Then Colonel Zane took twenty men and explored the field and forest where the savages had so lately encamped. They were gone. Discouraged by the re-enforcement of Colonel McCullough’s men, they had abandoned the siege, after burning the village and killing three hundred cattle.

A day passed. No signs of Indians were visible. The settlers ventured out of the fort to the desolate site of their frontier homes. Many a family had lost not only their home, but the strong right arm of the husband and father, which could have replaced the home. Place and prospect were to them but a vista on dreariness. With many a stifled sigh the survivors took up again the burden of life. In a day or two Captain Foreman arrived with more re-enforcements from Hampshire. For several weeks the people at Wheeling kept their guard. That the Indians had returned to their towns in the west seemed possible.

On September 26th a cloud of smoke seemed to be rising from the region of Tomlinson’s place, twelve miles below Wheeling. To ascertain the facts and lend assistance if necessary, Foreman took a strong party and started in the direction of the smoke. Grave Creek, as the place was called, was found all safe. The men remained over night and commenced their return trip.

Foreman, a thick-headed fellow, inexperienced in Indian fighting, indulged in fatal recklessness. In his company was a weather-beaten scout, named Lynn. His crafty eye took in the danger of this proceeding, and after a caution to Foreman, he and two or three of his fellows withdrew to a dark spot in the forest for their night’s repose. About two o’clock in the morning, a faint plashing could be heard by a practiced ear. It came from the other side of the river. It was too regular and rythmical to be occasioned by the dash of the current on a hidden rock, or the sportive leapings of the fish from the dark depths. Lynn awoke. He listened. He made his way over to Foreman, roused him, and told him that he believed that Indians had seen their camp-fire, and were embarking from the opposite shore of the river on rafts, for an attack. Foreman repulsed him rudely, and turning over went to sleep. A shade fell on the honest face of the scout. He withdrew again into the forest. But he remained wide awake. He stood behind a tree, his finger on the trigger of his musket. He watched.

But the enemy, if present, gave no indications of it. With the morning came the order for marching. There were two routs. One along the river bottom, the other along a ridge of hills. Lynn urged the latter, as being safer from ambuscade, and a different way from the one by which they came. Whom the gods wish to destroy, they first make mad. Foreman was mad. He scoffed at the rusty-looking scout. The fatal command was given to take the lower route.

Lynn and a half dozen companions left the company to return by the ridge. It was well. As Foreman’s party proceeded the men discovered some Indian trinkets on the ground. A man in advance picked them up. Such a find is unusual. The backwoodsman is, after all, a man. He has curiosity. But his life is barren. Of the splendors of a great city, with its magnificent store windows, filled with dazzling and brilliant displays, he has no conception. A few beads are to him an object of wonder. To find them in the woods is a miracle. The men crowded eagerly around the finder of the treasure. The big, rough fellows, brave as lions, behaved like children. They jostled and crowded each other to get a better sight of the toy. They were intently absorbed. Every eye was on the treasure. Had one of them looked around he would have seen that they were surrounded by Indians.

There was a fearful explosion. The unseen circle of enemies had fired. Twenty-one white men fell dead on the spot. The rest would have fallen at the second fire. But suddenly there were heard terrific yells from the top of the hill. The Indians turned to listen. It seemed as if a whole army was coming. The Indians broke and ran; the faster the better. In a moment they were gone. The yells did not come from an army. They came from Lynn and his companions. The remainder of Foreman’s party was saved. He, himself, had paid the penalty for his obstinacy. But it was small recompense for the poor fellows lying cold in death.

Trains….for logging and Coal

The largest tree logged in the State of West Virginia, near Lead Mine, Tucker County, 1913. This white oak, as large as any California Sequoia, was probably well over 1,000 years old. It measured 13 feet in diameter 16 feet from the base, and 10 feet in diameter 31 feet from the base. Logging was a resource that was sought out by the railroads.

The success of the geared engine for mountain logging was phenomenal. Lima Locomotive Works and its successors of Lima, Ohio (which produced the Shay between the years 1880 and 1945) made 2,761 Shays. Of this number, over 200 were used in West Virginia logging. The geared design opened a new era in logging. For the first time it was possible to operate a locomotive on track that was no better than that formerly required by animal-powered tramways.

The Shay Engines at Cass State Park, Cass West Virginia

The history of the logging railroad in West Virginia  is interesting. It was originally constructed in 1902 by the West Virginia Spruce Lumber Company to remove timber from the Shaver’s Fork region of Monongahela National Forest. In 1910, it was sold to the West Virginia Pulp and Paper Company, who in turn sold it to with large amount for Mower Lumber Company in 1942. Faced with dwindling timber supplies, the operation folded in 1960. It was left to an impassioned plea by Mrs. Russel Baum of Sunbury, Pennsylvania to convince the West Virginia Legislature to purchase the remaining tracks and three remaining engines as a tourist attraction. In 1961, the Legislature appropriated $150,000 to make the purchase. Since that time, the line has been extended from 7 to 22 miles.

Cass, West Virginia, formerly a company-town built by the West Virginia Spruce Lumber Company, is now a state park and home for the Cass Scenic Railroad which operates vintage equipment for rail-fan excursions in the Cheat Mountain area. In this photograph, double-headed Shay locomotives No. 2 and No. 4 reenact an empty log train departing Cass for the cutting fields where harvested timber would be loaded for delivery back to the sawmill. Named for their inventor, Midwestern lumberman Ephriam Shay, Shay locomotives feature a geared drive train (patented in 1882) from the steam cylinders to the wheels. Shays are slow but very powerful and flexible, capable of negotiating rough, curvy and hilly track that would stop a conventional steam engine. Shays were built from the late 1800s up through WW-II. I love to visit Cass State Park in the Fall when the leaves are changing here in West Virginia. They have rides up the mountain. If you would like to read more about our Cass State Park click here. [Eternal Link]

A big tree here in WV in the 1800’s

Two lumber jacks logging a big tree here in West Virginia 1800's

For the most part, the history of the Mountain State has been determined by its geographic barriers and the attempts of its citizens to overcome them. Early settlements occurred on the navigable rivers and near natural breaks in the mountains. Travel by road remained slow and difficult even into the 20th century. Much of West Virginia’s interior remained remote until the advent of the interstate highway system of the 1970s and 80s. For industry to prosper, railroads had to be built.

The B&O is the oldest railroad in the U.S., and more than 210 of its 379 miles lie in West Virginia. Constructed by Baltimore and the state of Maryland as a link to the agricultural Midwest, to commerce offered by the Ohio River and to increase the citys competitive edge, the Baltimore and Ohio was completed to Wheeling on Christmas Eve, 1852. In what is now West Virginia, the line passed through Harpers Ferry and Grafton, which became a major division point that also served the Northwestern Virginia Railroad, later connecting with Parkersburg. Martinsburg also became a first-class railway town, possessing an engine house and machine shops.

Several of the major battles, skirmishes and troop movements during the Civil War in what is now West Virginia were due to the struggle to control the regions railroads. For the most part, however, major damage was averted. The period after the war can truly be called West Virginias railroad era.

Shay logging train in West Virginia Cass Almost heaven West Virginia

Locked deep within the heavily forested mountains that also offer a wealth of lumber, are the rich deposits of coal, natural gas and oil that characterize so much of the state. These reserves were largely inaccessible until the coming of the rails. Following a depression in the 1870s and the beginning of the industrialization of the United States, railroad lines were constructed, which had as their main goal the recovery of West Virginias natural resources.

The construction challenges were daunting to say the least. The Chesapeake and Ohio Line, which connected Richmond, Virginia, and Huntington, faced enormous barriers. Tunnels were blasted and drilled through the mountains giving birth not only to a rail line, but to legends as well. One such legend concerns the Big Bend Tunnels near Hinton and John Henry, the “Steel Drivin Man” made popular by ballads. In fact, a statue near the site of that epic contest has commemorated the story of John Henrys competition with a steam drill.

One of the first trunk lines built in West Virginia after the Civil War, the Chesapeake and Ohio Railway C&O train history was begun in 1868 and the rails were connected at Hawks Nest on January 29, 1873. Following the pathways of Native Americans and stagecoach routes, the C&O line entered the state east of White Sulphur Springs in Greenbrier County and traveled through the canyon of the New River, followed the Kanawha River for several miles and then cut across to Huntington and the Ohio River. Collis P. Huntington was responsible for extending the line on to Louisville, New Orleans and points west, thus further opening trade to the South, the West and broadening the city of Huntingtons prominence.

The completion of the line in 1873 opened the southern half of West Virginia, most notably the Kanawha River Valley, to industrialization. The railroad also made possible the intensive mining operations that fueled the states economy for 80 years and continue to do so today.The Norfolk and Western Railroads Ohio Extension was completed in 1892 and built expressly for the purpose of opening up the rich Pocahontas coal field in southwestern West Virginia. This rich coal seam produced a fuel highly prized by Americas industries. Many of the southern counties of our state owe their development to this mining activity, which would not have been possible were it not for the construction of rail links.Many of West Virginias most renowned and colorful historical figures are associated with the rail industry. Collis P. Huntington, H. H. Rogers, Henry Gassaway Davis and Stephen Benton Elkins all built and expanded the railroad system and brought prosperity and development to the states citizenry.

Casual visitors, as well as serious students and rail buffs, can enjoy the ongoing interpretation of West Virginias rich railroad history. And railroad tourism is giving new life to our states ribbon of rails.

Keyboards for Christ Music/Award Program

Nature and Meaning of the Lord’s Supper

The Nature

It is a visualized act of worship which symbolically visualizes spiritual truth for our edification using two symbolic elements: the bread and the cup, and four symbolic actions: (1) breaking the bread and sharing it, (2) eating the bread, (3) pouring and passing the cup, and (4) drinking the fruit of the vine from the cup.

The Meaning of the Elements and Symbolic Acts

The Elements:

(1) The Bread: The bread symbolically speaks of the body or the person of Christ as the God-man Savior, the one who was and is the bread of life come down from heaven as God’s solution to man’s sinful state (Matt. 26:26; Mark 14:22; Luke 22:19; 1 Cor. 11:24). The bread remains bread, but it symbolizes the concept of the incarnation. God the Son in the person of Jesus Christ took upon Himself true and sinless humanity that He might die for us, and now lives on in His glorified state to be our life and to be in our midst as the head of the body of Christ, His church (John 6:32-33, 38, 48-58).

(2) The Cup: The cup was filled with the fruit of the vine which was red like blood. This, as Christ taught, is symbolic of the blood of the covenant which was shed on behalf of many.

The cup with its blood red wine calls to mind the cross and the death Christ died as our sinless substitute. It proclaims the Lord’s death as accomplished, but it is not a reenactment of His death; it simply reminds us salvation has been accomplished and our sins put away as far as the east is from the west. It portrays His life given in death as God’s Lamb.

It also stands for the new covenant, the concept that the Old Testament or old covenant in types and shadows has been fulfilled and put away, and that we have God’s guarantee of the forgiveness of our sins based on the finished work and death of Christ (Heb. 10:14-18).

Trains/Award Program

Western Virginia [Now West Virginia] Trains in the Civil War

The Great Train Raid of 1861 was a Confederate military raid conducted in western Virginia in May 1861 during the early days of the American Civil War It was aimed at disrupting a critical railroad used by the opposing Union Army as a major supply route.

Following the creation and organization of the Confederate States government in the early months of 1861, on April 4, the Virginia Secession Convention met and voted against secession. However, after the Confederate attack on Fort Sumter and President Abraham Lincoln’s call for a 75,000-man army to put down the rebellion, the Virginia Secession Convention reconvened on April 15, and voted on April 17, provisionally, to secede, on the condition of ratification by a statewide referendum.

The Governor of Virginia immediately began mobilizing the Virginia State Militia to strategic points around the state, including the assignment of Maj. Gen. Kenton Harper to the “Forces In and About Harpers Ferry, Virginia” on April 18. The following day, Southern secessionists rioted  Baltimore as a Union force marched through the city due to a lack of any union stations at the time. Nine days later, on April 27, Col. Thomas J. (later “Stonewall”) Jackson, then of the Virginia State Militia, was ordered to relieve Harper. He began the task of organizing the defense of Virginia at that location. Harpers Ferry held not only important arms production factories, but was a choke-hold on the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, and key telegraph trunk lines connecting Baltimore and Washington, D.C., to the Ohio Valley and interior of the United States.

Martinsburgh West Virginia

During this point in the Civil War, the state of Marylands stance in the war was also not yet determined. The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, then owned by the state of Maryland, ran through Maryland and along the Potomac River Valley in its pass through the Appalachian Mountains, but took a crucial turn at Harpers Ferry and passed south, through Virginia and Martinsburg while crossing the Shenandoah Valley. The railroad then continued on through much of present-day West Virginia, which then was still part of Virginia, meaning that the railroad continued for a major portion of its route through potentially “Confederate” territory. This exposed the railroad to raids and capture by Confederate forces if either Virginia or Maryland seceded from the Union.

 Planning of the raid

As the inevitable war approached, the president of the B&O Railroad, John Garrett, who was sympathetic to the Union, did all he could to placate both sides in order to protect the railroad operations. Col. Jackson, gathering intelligence on freight passing on the line, determined that coal was being shipped in large quantities from the Ohio Valley to Union naval bases in Baltimore that were fueling U.S. Navy warships attempting to blockade the more southern states. Jackson then devised a covert plan to destroy B&O Railroad operations while simultaneously benefiting Virginia and possibly the Confederacy.

Jackson complained to the B&O Railroad that the trains disturbed the rest of his troops, and notified John Garrett that trains would only be allowed to pass through Harpers Ferry between the hours of 11 a.m. and 1 p.m. in order to ensure their rest was not disturbed. This timetable bottleneck caused the B&O Railroad to pile up trains in yards on either side of Harpers Ferry in order to maximize their throughput during this new curfew.

 The Great Train Raid

By May 13 political instability began to mount, as martial law was declared in Baltimore, which was a very secession-sympathetic city. Upon notice that the popular-vote to ratify secession in Virginia had overwhelmingly endorsed that course, Jackson was now free and ready to execute his train raid.

On May 23, Col. Jackson executed a raid to cut the B&O Railroad lines at a bridge near Cherry Run on the Potomac River north and west of Martinsburg and the signal tower west of Point of Rocks, thereby trapping a large quantity of rolling stock in between, especially in the rail yard at Martinsburg. Jackson sent the 5th Virginia Infantry under Col. Kenton Harper to Cherry Run, west of Martinsburg, to sever the line in that location, and he sent Col. John D. Imboden’s cavalry to Point of Rocks, east of Harpers Ferry, to sever the line there. From Harpers Ferry, the Winchester and Potomac Railroad ran as a spur off the B&O Railroad mainline south to Winchester, Virginia, allowing Jackson to try and move his captured rail assets quickly to Winchester.Jackson’s forces captured a total of 56 locomotives with tenders and 386 railroad cars, mostly coal cars, of the B&O Railroad, removed them into Virginia State Militia hands, and staged them in the railyards at Martinsburg. Jackson’s plan was to move these assets down the Winchester and Potomac Railroad via Harpers Ferry to Winchester, disassemble them and mount them on special wagons, and move them overland to Strasburg, Virginia, where they were to be reassembled and moved south on the Manassas Gap Railroad. With the assistance of the Chief Engineer of the Winchester and Potomac Railroad, Thomas R. Sharp, and Joseph Keeler and his son Charles Keeler wagoneers living near Stephenson’s Depot special carriages and dollies were constructed and used to transport the first four small locomotives, south from Winchester along the Valley Turnpike to Strasburg and then to Richmond via the Manassas Gap Railroad. In an incredible and historic feat of engineering, the Virginia militia soldiers pulled the first four locomotives with 40-horse teams, rigged artillery-style, through downtown Winchester south on the Valley Pike to the rail-head at Strasburg. Among the engines captured and moved through Manassas Junction was the thirty ton Engine No. 199.

Winans 0-8-0 camel locomotive Engine No. 199 captured by Jackson’s forces

On June 2, 1861, due to a combination of miscommunications and over-zealousness, Confederate forces continued destroying B&O Railroad assets, including the B&O Railroad bridge over Opequon Creek two miles east of Martinsburg. Here they lit 50 coal cars on fire and ran them off the destroyed trestle, “where they burned for two months, the intense heat melting axles and wheels.”[2] The 52 remaining locomotives and various rail cars left in Martinsburg were thus left stranded by this uncoordinated action, and this ended the Great Train Raid.

Jackson was later ordered to destroy the 800 foot B&O railroad bridge at Harpers Ferry over the Potomac River on June 14, 1861, rip up and take many miles of B&O Railroad track, and then burn the remaining stranded rolling stock and locomotives at Martinsburg in the Martinsburg Train Raid on June 23, 1861 before finally evacuating and abandoning the Harpers Ferry area.

In the weeks following this, Jackson decided to salvage 10 of the burnt locomotives at Martinsburg and move them into the Confederate rail system. The evacuation of any more locomotives or rail cars by the Manassas Gap Railroad became too risky for potential re-capture by Union forces, and so the those 10 locomotives and additional rail cars were moved by the same carriage and dolly method 125 miles overland south from Martinsburg through Winchester and on to the Virginia Central Railroad in Staunton, Virginia.

Many of the rail cars that had been captured were hidden in barns and farms throughout the Winchester area, and Confederate forces along with citizens continued to move move these up the valley through the summer months of 1861, and for a period of the next two years. As late as 1863 many of the railroad cars were still being hauled away up the Shenandoah Valley to Staunton for service on Confederate rail lines all throughout the South.Virginia secedes

On 23 May the Commonwealth of Virginia conducted its popular vote, and secession was formally ratified. Immediately Maj. Gen. Joseph E. Johnston, then of the Virginia State Militia, relieved Colonel Jackson and took command at Harpers Ferry on 24 May. Shortly afterward, on 8 June, all Virginia State troops were transferred to the authority of the Confederate States.

 B&O Railroad eventually Reopens

In his Annual Report of the B&O Railroad for 1861, President Garrett wrote:

On May 28, 1861, general posession was taken by the Confederate forces of more than one hundred miles of the Main Stem, embroiling chiefly the region between Point of Rocks and Cumberland. Occasional movements were also made, accompanied by considerable destruction upon the roads between Cumberland and Wheeling, and Grafton and Parkersburg, during the fiscal year. The Protection of the Government was not restored throughout the line until March, 1862, when the reconstruction was pressed with great energy, and the line reopened on the 29th of that month.

The B&O Railroad reopened for service on March 3o, 1861. Later, historian Thomas Weber summarized the damage:

“Caught in the trap and destroyed were 42 locomotives and 386 cars; 23 bridges were burned, 102 miles of telegraph line torn down, and two water stations destroyed. Because of his own transportation difficulties, Jackson could carry with him only 14 locomotives, and undetermined number of cars, and 36 1/2 miles of rail which his men had torn up. Wreaking damage on the machine shops and engine houses at Martinsburg, and blowing up the bridge at Harper’s Ferry, Jackson disappeared south. His work had been well done. From June 14, 1861, until March 18, 1862, no trains ran between Baltimore and Wheeling.”


 Following the war

Following the war, all but one of the 14 locomotives taken were returned to full service in the B&O Railroad. The one locomotive not returned, Engine No. 34, had been damaged by a Union cavalry raid, and so the boiler from that engine was installed in a Confederate gunboat, which was later sunk by the U.S. Navy. This railroad heist holds the record for being the largest train robbery and railroad theft in history.

Garrett always remembered Stonewall Jackson’s destruction of the B&O properties at Martinsburg, Virginia in June 1861, and he admired how Confederate colonel Thomas R. Sharpe, with just thirty-five men comprising six machinists, ten teamsters, and twelve laborers had moved fourteen of his big locomotives – including a Hayes Camel 198, a Mason locomotive, and a “dutch wagon” – over forty miles of dirt roads from Martinsburg to Strasburg, Virginia. When the indispensable William Prescott Smith [B&O RR Chief of Transportation] died prematurely at age forty-seven in 1872, Garrett hired Sharpe to replace him as master of transportation”

Gary L. Browne